How to set screen resolution for VNC Server

Here is how you change the screen resolution for VNC Server on a Raspberry Pi.

Go to terminal and type:
sudo nano /boot/config.txt

Find this section of the config.txt file:
# uncomment to force a specific HDMI mode (this will force VGA)
#hdmi_group=2
#hdmi_mode=16

Change to this to set the default resolution to 1280×720:
# uncomment to force a specific HDMI mode (this will force VGA)
#hdmi_group=2
#hdmi_mode=16
hdmi_ignore_edid=0xa5000080
hdmi_group=2
hdmi_mode=85

These values are valid if hdmi_group=2 (DMT):

hdmi_mode resolution frequency notes
1 640×350 85Hz
2 640×400 85Hz
3 720×400 85Hz
4 640×480 60Hz
5 640×480 72Hz
6 640×480 75Hz
7 640×480 85Hz
8 800×600 56Hz
9 800×600 60Hz
10 800×600 72Hz
11 800×600 75Hz
12 800×600 85Hz
13 800×600 120Hz
14 848×480 60Hz
15 1024×768 43Hz incompatible with the Raspberry Pi
16 1024×768 60Hz
17 1024×768 70Hz
18 1024×768 75Hz
19 1024×768 85Hz
20 1024×768 120Hz
21 1152×864 75Hz
22 1280×768 reduced blanking
23 1280×768 60Hz
24 1280×768 75Hz
25 1280×768 85Hz
26 1280×768 120Hz reduced blanking
27 1280×800 reduced blanking
28 1280×800 60Hz
29 1280×800 75Hz
30 1280×800 85Hz
31 1280×800 120Hz reduced blanking
32 1280×960 60Hz
33 1280×960 85Hz
34 1280×960 120Hz reduced blanking
35 1280×1024 60Hz
36 1280×1024 75Hz
37 1280×1024 85Hz
38 1280×1024 120Hz reduced blanking
39 1360×768 60Hz
40 1360×768 120Hz reduced blanking
41 1400×1050 reduced blanking
42 1400×1050 60Hz
43 1400×1050 75Hz
44 1400×1050 85Hz
45 1400×1050 120Hz reduced blanking
46 1440×900 reduced blanking
47 1440×900 60Hz
48 1440×900 75Hz
49 1440×900 85Hz
50 1440×900 120Hz reduced blanking
51 1600×1200 60Hz
52 1600×1200 65Hz
53 1600×1200 70Hz
54 1600×1200 75Hz
55 1600×1200 85Hz
56 1600×1200 120Hz reduced blanking
57 1680×1050 reduced blanking
58 1680×1050 60Hz
59 1680×1050 75Hz
60 1680×1050 85Hz
61 1680×1050 120Hz reduced blanking
62 1792×1344 60Hz
63 1792×1344 75Hz
64 1792×1344 120Hz reduced blanking
65 1856×1392 60Hz
66 1856×1392 75Hz
67 1856×1392 120Hz reduced blanking
68 1920×1200 reduced blanking
69 1920×1200 60Hz
70 1920×1200 75Hz
71 1920×1200 85Hz
72 1920×1200 120Hz reduced blanking
73 1920×1440 60Hz
74 1920×1440 75Hz
75 1920×1440 120Hz reduced blanking
76 2560×1600 reduced blanking
77 2560×1600 60Hz
78 2560×1600 75Hz
79 2560×1600 85Hz
80 2560×1600 120Hz reduced blanking
81 1366×768 60Hz
82 1920×1080 60Hz 1080p
83 1600×900 reduced blanking
84 2048×1152 reduced blanking
85 1280×720 60Hz 720p
86 1366×768 reduced blanking

How to clean up Ubuntu /boot partition

After time your Ubuntu /boot partition can fill up with multiple kernel versions. To clean up unused kernel’s use the following steps.

Command line method:

First check your kernel version, so you won’t delete the in-use kernel image, running:

uname -r

Now run this command for a list of installed kernels:

dpkg –list ‘linux-image*’ | grep ^ii

and delete the kernels you don’t want/need anymore by running this:

sudo apt-get remove linux-image-VERSION

Replace VERSION with the version of the kernel you want to remove.

When you’re done removing the older kernels, you can run this to remove ever packages you won’t need anymore:

sudo apt-get autoremove

And finally you can run this to update grub kernel list:

sudo update-grub

Root File Browser for Raspbian Jessie

I am often asked how to run the file browser with root privileges on a Raspberry Pi, here are the instructions.

Typing gksudo in Terminal and then hitting enter. A window named Run program will pop up.

Then typing pcmanfm on the Run text field. Pressing ok. Always use caution when running the file brower with root privileges, you can easily break your system if you don’t know what you are doing.

VirtualBox Host Keys

I’m always forgetting the  host keys when using the VirtualBox install on my laptop. I did  a Google search for them and could not find a comprehensive list of all of the VirtralBox shortcut keys in one place so I made up a list myself.

Default Host Key = Right-CTRL
Main Menu Bar = Host-Home
Full Screen = Host-F
Scaled Mode = Host-C
Adjust Windows Size = Host-A
Take Screen Shot = Host-E
Settings = Host-S
Take Snapshot = Host-T
Pause = Host-P
Reset = Host-R
ACPI Shutdown = Host-H
Close = Host-Q

Press the Host key to capture/ uncapture mouse.

How to Convert FAT32 to NTFS in Windows 10

I recently purchased a 5TB external hard drive to archive some important media files. After I copied around 2TB of data over to the new drive I realized that it came formatted out of the box in FAT32 and not NTFS. Since I had files that were larger than 4GB leaving the drive in FAT32 was not an option.  I had already spent a considerable amount of time archiving files to the new drive and did not want to reformat the drive and start over.  Since doing a non-destructive partition change in Ubuntu Linux is not possible I booted into Windows 10 and used the convert J: /fs:ntfs  command to change the file system.  For some reason this command did not work so I searched for a 3rd party utility software to accomplish the change. I found a neat little utility called EaseUS partition software that worked like a charm. EaseUS is free for home users.

Convert FAT32 to NTFS in Windows 10 with EaseUS partition software

2. The pop-up dialog box will show the source and destination file system, click “OK” to continue.

3. Click “Apply” to execute the operation.